Diamond is a pure crystallized carbon, in its second most stable form after graphite. Its physical properties are unique, being the material with the highest hardness and thermal conductivity known.
Although white (or more properly the absence of color) is its most common state, it can present practically all the colors of the spectrum.
- Hardness: 10 on the Mohs scale
- Specific weight: 3.52
- Conchoid fracture
- Color: All spectrum colors, although typically colorless.
- Adamantine shine
- Variable transparency, and possible presence of inclusions that give a milky appearance.
Diamond producing countries
First of all, a clarification, since you have to differentiate between origin and provenance.
Origin means the country where the mine is located and origin is where it is marketed and handled. Thus, for example, we can have a diamond whose origin is a mine in Russia and its origin is Antwerp because this is where it has been cut and sold.
Antwerp (Belgium) is the main diamond trading place in the world, while the main deposits are in Russia, Botswana, Australia and the Republic of the Congo.
Historically the first deposits appeared in the 11th century BC in India, and it developed massively from 1870 in South Africa.
It belonged to Louis XIV and was stolen during the French Revolution, and acquired in the early 19th century by the banker Henry Hope. Later, the entire Hope family ended their life in misery, thus beginning the legend of the “curse of Hope.” It is deep blue in color, weighs 42.52 carats, and is currently housed at the Smithsonian Institut in Washington.
Perhaps the most famous diamond in history. It was found in the Transvaal (South Africa), and named after the owner of the mine where it was found, Sir Thomas Cullinan, this rough gem weighed 3,196 carats.
After dividing and carving it into several pieces, the largest carved stone is called Star of Africa and is currently part of the British Crown Jewels. It weighs 530.20 carats and has 74 facets. It is still the largest cut diamond in the world.
It owes its name to the commemoration of the centenary of the De Beers company, and is considered one of the best colored diamonds ever found. The rough stone weighed 599 carats, and after being cut in 247 facets and in the shape of a heart by the great carver Tolkowsky, its weight became 273 carats, making it the fourth largest cut diamond in the world.