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Diamonds

Diamond is a crystallized, in its second stable after so pure carbon graphite. Its physical properties are unique, being the material with increased hardness and thermal conductivity is known.

Although the white (or more properly the lack of color) is his usual state, you can make almost all colors of the spectrum.

Physical properties:

  • Hardness: 10 on the Mohs scale
  • Specific gravity: 3.52
  • Conchoidal fracture

Optical properties:

  • Color: All colors of the spectrum, but are typically colorless.
  • Adamantine luster
  • Variable transparency, and possible presence of inclusions that give a milky appearance.

 

Diamond-producing countries

First a clarification, because we have to differentiate between source and origin.

Country of origin means the mine and origin is where it is marketed and handled is. For example we can have a diamond mine and originating in Russia and its origin is Antwerp because it is here that has been carved and sold.

Antwerp (Belgium) is the main place of commercialization of diamonds in the world, while the main deposits are in Russia, Botswana, Australia and Republic of Congo.

Historically the first sites appeared in the eleventh century BC in India, and massively developed since 1870 in South Africa.

 

Famous diamonds:

Hope:

It belonged to Louis XIV and was stolen during the French Revolution, and acquired in the early nineteenth century by the banker Henry Hope. Later, all the Hope family ended his life in poverty, thus beginning the legend of the "curse of the Hope". It has a deep blue color, weighs 42.52 carats, and currently is in the Smithsonian Institute in Washington

Cullinan:

Perhaps the most famous diamond in history. It was found in Transvaal (South Africa) and named in honor of the owner of the mine where it was found, Sir Thomas Cullinan, this gem weighed 3196 carats rough.

After dividing and carve it into several pieces, the largest stone carving called the Star of Africa and is now part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. It weighs 530.20 carats and has 74 facets. It remains the world's largest diamond carved.

Centenary:

It owes its name to the commemoration of the centenary of De Beers, and is considered one of the best color diamond ever found. The rough stone weighed 599 carats, and after being carved in 247 facets and heart shaped by the great carver Tolkowsky, weight became 273 carats, making it the fourth largest diamond in the world.